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Citing Sources

     It is very important to always be able to go back and verify information.  To help people do this, we must tell (cite) where we get our information.  There are many set ways to do this.  You can search various styles on the internet but the two main ones we use at PHS are MLA and APA.   The International Baccalaureate Programme does not have a set style; however, you must be consistent throughout your paper.  For example, titles should always be treated the same way, either underline, put in quotes, OR italicize.  Don't do it one way for one source and another way for a different source.

Oregon School Library - MLA

(8th edition - 2016)

(Scroll down to Purdue's OWL for the 8th ed.)

Copy and Paste into your Works Cited page, then doublespace, hanging indent, alphabetize, match fonts with the rest of your paper.

Oregon School Library - APA 

(6th edition)

Copy and Paste into your Works Cited page, then doublespace, hanging indent, alphabetize, match fonts with the rest of your paper.

Easy Bib It will highlight in red items the computer couldn't find easily or if the website has an automatic date/time feature.

If you are already familiar with traditional MLA citation methods, continue to use them in a more simplified form. Since the eighth edition emphasizes the writer’s freedom to create references based on the expectations of the audience, consider what your readers need to know if they want to find your source.

*Think of MLA style principles as flexible guides, rather than rules. Part of your responsibility as a writer is to evaluate your readers and decide what your particular audience needs to know about your sources.

*In-text citations should look consistent throughout your paper. The principles behind in-text citations have changed very little from the seventh to the eighth editions.    OWL


Italics and underlining are generally used interchangeably. When you write, you can choose to either italicize or underline, but make sure you are consistent in which you use throughout the essay. Italicize the titles of magazines, books, newspapers, academic journals, films, television shows, long poems, plays, operas, musical albums, works of art, websites.  OWL

For more indepth information from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab:

MLA                                                            APA

The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin:

MLA                                                           APA

No date showing

Replace the site’s address in the browser window with:


[Make sure the word javascript is still there if you are pasting.] Enter.   

A window will pop up giving you the date the site was last modified.  If it is today's date and time, an automatic setting has been put in and is therefore pretty useless in telling you the age.